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Resonance Raman spectroscopic study of phenoxyl radical complexes
Zitatschlüssel ISI:000072624500017
Autor Schnepf, R and Sokolowski, A and Muller, J and Bachler, V and Wieghardt, K and Hildebrandt, P
Seiten 2352-2364
Jahr 1998
ISSN 0002-7863
Adresse 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA
Journal J. Am. Chem. Soc
Jahrgang 120
Nummer 10
Monat MAR 18
Verlag AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Zusammenfassung Resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy has been employed to study coordinated phenoxyl radicals (M = Ga, Sc, Fe) which were electrochemically generated in solution by using 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-based ligands containing one, two, or three p-methoxy or p-tert-butyl N-substituted phenolates, i.e., 1,4,7-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L-3(but)), 1,4,7-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclonona ne (L-3(met)), 1,4-bis(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-7-ethyl-1,4,7-triazacycl ononane L-2(met), and 1-(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-4,7-dimethyl-1,4,7-triazacycl ononane (L-1(met)). A selective enhancement of the vibrational modes of the phenoxyl chromophores is achieved upon excitation in resonance with the pi –> pi* transition at ca. 410 nm. The interpretation of the spectra was supported by quantum chemical (density functional theory) calculations which facilitate the vibrational assignment for the coordinated phenoxyl radicals and provide the framework for correlations between the RR spectra and the structural and electronic properties of the radicals. For the uncoordinated phenoxyl radicals the geometry optimization yields a semiquinone character which increases from the unsubstituted to the p-methyl- and the p-methoxy-substituted radical. This tendency is indicated by a steady upshift of the nu(8a) mode which predominantly contains the C-ortho-C-meta stretching coordinate, thereby reflecting strengthening of this bond. The calculated normal-mode frequencies for these radicals are in a good agreement with the experimental data constituting a sound foundation for extending thr vibrational analysis to the 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenoxyl which is the building block of the macrocyclic ligands L-3(met), L-2(met), and L-1(met). The metal-coordinated radical complexes reveal a similar band pattern as the free radicals with the modes nu(8a), and nu(7a) (C=O stretching) dominating the RR spectra. These two modes are sensitive spectral indicators for the structural and electronic properties of the coordinated phenoxyl radicals. A systematic investigation of complexes containing different ligands and metal ions reveals that two parameters control the semiquinone character of the phenoxyls: (i) an electron-donating substituent in the para position which can accept spin density from the ring and (ii) an electron-accepting metal ion capable of withdrawing excess electron density, introduced by additional electron-donating substituents in ortho positions. It appears that both effects, which are reflected by (i) the frequency of the mode nu(8a) and (ii) the frequency difference of the modes nu(8a) and nu(7a), balance an optimum electron density distribution in the phenoxyl radical. Along similar lines, it has been possible to interpret the RR spectral changes between the Fe monoradical, [Fe(L-3(met))](+.), and diradical, [Fe(L-3(met))(2+..), complexes. Both the parent as well as the radical complexes of Fe exhibit a phenolate-to-iron charge transfer band >500 nm. Excitation in resonance with this transition yields a selective enhancement of the vibrational modes of the coordinated phenolates which reveal a significantly more complex band pattern than the coordinated phenoxyls. For a large number of phenolate modes, distinct differences in frequencies and relative intensities were found between the parent and the monoradical Fe complexes implying that oxidation of one phenolate affects the structures and electron density distributions in the ground and excited states of the remaining phenolates. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the copper-coordinated tyrosyl radical in the active site of galactose oxidase.
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