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Role of the Propionic Side Chains for the Photoconversion of Bacterial Phytochromes
Citation key FernandezLopez2019
Author Fernandez Lopez, Maria and Nguyen, Anh Duc and Velazquez Escobar, Francisco and González, Ronald and Michael, Norbert and Nogacz, Żaneta and Piwowarski, Patrick and Bartl, Franz and Siebert, Friedrich and Heise, Inge and Scheerer, Patrick and Gärtner, Wolfgang and Mroginski, Maria Andrea and Hildebrandt, Peter
Pages 3504-3519
Year 2019
DOI 10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00526
Journal Biochemistry
Volume 58
Number 33
Note PMID: 31348653
Abstract Bacteriophytochromes harboring a biliverdin IXα (BV) chromophore undergo photoinduced reaction cascades to switch between physiologically inactive and active states. Employing vibrational spectroscopic and computational methods, we analyzed the role of propionic substituents of BV in the transformations between parent states Pr and Pfr in prototypical (Agp1) and bathy (Agp2) phytochromes from Agrobacterium fabrum. Both proteins form adducts with BV monoesters (BVM), esterified at propionic side chain B (PsB) or C (PsC), but in each case, only one monoester adduct is reactive. In the reactive Agp2-BVM-B complex (esterified at ring B), the Pfr dark state displays the structural properties characteristic of bathy phytochromes, including a protonated PsC. As in native Agp2, PsC is deprotonated in the final step of the Pfr phototransformation. However, the concomitant α-helix/β-sheet secondary structure change of the tongue is blocked at the stage of unfolding of the coiled loop region. This finding and the shift of the tautomeric equilibrium of BVM toward the enol form are attributed to the drastic changes in the electrostatic potential. The calculations further suggest that deprotonation of PsC and the protonation state of His278 control the reactivity of the enol tautomer, thereby accounting for the extraordinarily slow thermal reversion. Although strong perturbations of the electrostatic potential are also found for Agp1-BVM, the consequences for the Pr-to-Pfr phototransformation are less severe. Specifically, the structural transition of the tongue is not impaired and thermal reversion is even accelerated. The different response of Agp1 and Agp2 to monoesterification of BV points to different photoconversion mechanisms.
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